GASTRITIS: it refers to acute or chronic inflammation of the stomach which is diffuse. Helicobacter pylori is the main reason for gastritis and aspirin and other non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a cause for acute gastritis.

ACUTE GASTRITIS: main causes are
1. NSAIDS
2. ALCOHOL
3. DRUGS-iron, antimitotic agents.
4. Bile
5. Severe psychological stress
6. Uraemia
7. H.pylori
8.other infections.

There are usually no symptoms referable to the stomach and patient presents with gastro intestinal heamorrhage. In minority of patients there may be epigastric discomfort, anorexia and nausea.

CHRONIC GASTRITIS: Classified into Type A and Type B gastritis, it is histological with three stages which are progressive over many years. In chronic superficial gastritis the mucosa is normal in thickness and there is patchy infiltration of lymphocytes and palsma cells. In atrophic gastritis there is a reduction in parietal and chief cells in the glands of the body and mucous cells in pyloric glands.
Type A gastritis: the gastritis involves the body of the stomach and spares the antrum and it is due to autoimmune activity against the parietal cells. In some patients the degree of gastric atrophy is so severe that the absence of parietal cells leads to failure to secrete intrinsic factor and pernicious anemia results. This type of gastritis is aymptomatic and it is important becoz it leads to gastric cancer.

Type B gastritis: It is a common form of gastritis involves the antrum and can spead to the body along the lesser curvature. It is usually caused by h.pylori, this type can result after a surgery. It is caused by reflux of bile, pancreatic and intestinal secretions.

For dyspepsia, acute and chronic gastritis there are effective treatments.

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